Volume 9 (December 2000)

GENDER RESEARCH IN MUSIC EDUCATION
Newsletter:  Volume 9, Number 1 (December, 2000)
In this issue:

1.  EDITORIAL

2.  CONFERENCE REPORTS

2.1  GRIME Meeting at MENC

2.2  Toronto 2000: An Idiosyncratic and Highly Provisional Account

3.  GEMS REPORT

4.  MEMBER RESEARCH AND CREATIVE ACTIVITIES

    4.1  Postwar Modernity and the Wife’s Subjectivity: Bernstein’s Trouble in Tahiti

by Elizabeth L. Keathley (University of Tennessee, Knoxville)

4.2  School Musicians’ Attitudes Toward Hypermedia-Enhanced Rehearsals: A Pilot Study

by Kimberly C. Walls (Auburn University)

    4.3  Music Education

by J. Terry Gates (SUNY at Buffalo)

4.4  First Peoples’ Music and Dance in Canada: A Resource Guide on CD-ROM

by Elaine Keillor (Carleton University)

4.5  Examining the “Heritage” in Canadian Heritage

by Sherry Johnson (York University)

4.6  Oral Tradition and the Medieval Music Curriculum in Ontario: Ideas, Experiences and Possibilities

by Judith Cohen (York University), Kari Veblen and Sonia James-Wilson (University of Toronto)

4.7  “A Process of Advocacy”: Racial Representations on MUCHMUSIC (Canada) and MTV (U.S.)

by Karen Pegley (York University)

4.8  Documenting Children’s Musical Culture: Past Achievements, Future Directions

by Marie McCarthy (University of Maryland, College Park)

    4.9  “By a Canadian Lady”: Piano Music, 1841-1997

by Elaine Keillor, piano (Carleton University)

    4.10  A Light Touch, Please: Mastering Native Native American Improvisation and Ornamentation

in the Multicultural Classroom

by J. Bryan Burton (West Chester University)

4.11  Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Film Music

organized and co-chaired by Charlene Morton and Annabel J. Cohen (University of Prince Edward Island)

4.12  Cultural Positionalities of Women College Band Directors: Intersecting Music, Performance,

and College Bands

by Elizabeth Gould (Boise State University)

4.13  American Women Music Directors, 1900-1950

by Sondra Wieland Howe

    Abstracts of Dissertations & Theses

    4.14  Flowers in the Musical Canon: A Transformed, Gender Inclusive, Culturally Pluralistic Model Core

Curriculum in College Music

by Anita Hanawalt

4.15  Singing a Woman’s Life: How Singing Lessons Transformed the Lives of Nine Women

by Ann Patteson

5.  PUBLICATIONS & RECORDINGS

6.  PENDING PUBLICATIONS

7.  NEWS & CONFERENCES


 

1.  EDITORIAL

GRIME: LOOKING BACK AND FORTH

by Elizabeth Gould

Recent events have caused me to think not only about the future of GRIME, but about our collective past, as well. As most of you know, GRIME was founded in 1991 at the first Feminist Theory and Music Conference held at the University of Minnesota, when Roberta Lamb brought together several interested and committed people. That was a very exciting time for me as I had just finished my doctoral course work in music education and wind ensemble conducting, and was fairly speechless to actually meet the individuals I had been citing. I still have in my files Volume 1 No. 1 of this Newsletter. Since that time, membership in GRIME has grown to over 100, and in 1998, thanks in large part to the work of Patti O’Toole, GRIME achieved SRIG status, as Roberta first proposed in the original Newsletter. As a professional organization, though, GRIME retains its independent, international identity, and functions in that context.

Looking forth (as in the title), I see in my–by extension–GRIME’s immediate future, the Feminist Theory and Music 6 Conference. Due to a variety of circumstances, the Conference was without a site until late in November when I volunteered to host it here at Boise State University. I am still in the process of developing a theme and identifying a Program Committee, so should you have suggestions for the former or the latter, or would like to work on the conference in any capacity, please do contact me (egould@boisestate.edu) immediately–if not sooner! Tentative dates for FTM6 are 5 through 8 July 2001. This will be an important meeting for GRIME members to discuss our own organization as well as the future of gender research in general, and FTM in particular. GRIME meetings have historically occurred during the Feminist Theory and Music conferences during odd numbered years, and at MENC meetings during even numbered years. This means, however, that all GRIMES members are eligible to attend meetings only at FTM conferences. Without FTM, of course, we would need to consider holding GRIME meetings at our own conference, in conjunction with another conference, or only at MENC, which is a problem because not all GRIME members are MENC members. As an MENC SRIG, we still need to identify a few Division Chairs. Current Division Chairs include Susan Wheatley, Eastern Division, and Sondra Wieland Howe, Northwestern Division. Juanita Karpf served briefly as Chair of the Southern Division, but has since moved to Oberlin College. So, in addition to Chair of the Southern Division, we need people to volunteer to serve as Chairs of the Northwestern Division, Southwestern Division, Western Division, and International Division. Please contact me or Eleanor Stubley (stubley@music.mcgill.ca) if you would like to serve.

I hope to see you in Boise this summer–the weather is splendid in early July!–and please do participate in FTM6 in every possible way: planning, presenting, performing.

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2.  CONFERENCE REPORTS

2.1  GRIME MEETING AT MENC

by Elizabeth Gould (Boise State University)

The meeting at the spring 2000 conference of MENC in Washington DC resulted in two charges for me and Vice-Chair Eleanor Stubley: to investigate the possibility of an on-line journal, and to contact the organizers of Feminist Theory and Music 6. As you will read in the following article, Eleanor has been extremely successful in both envisioning a journal for GRIME, called GEMS (Gender, Education, Music, Society), and in working out the details necessary to make it viable in the next year. I am extremely excited about GEMS, and think it will be a valuable resource for researchers in the future. As I mentioned above, FTM6 will be held at Boise State University.

The GRIME presentation at MENC, “What Gender Research has to Offer Music Educators,” included the following papers: “A Research Agenda for the New Millennium,” Estelle Jorgensen (Indiana University), “Feminist Thought and the History of Black Women in Music Education,” Juanita Karpf (Oberlin College), “Feminist Philosophy in Music Education,” Roberta Lamb (Queens University), and “The Effects of Gender Research on Classroom Practices,” Elizabeth Gould (Boise State University). Following a fire drill that cleared the hotel, these presentations provoked a lively discussion that raised several issues related to gender research itself. What is it? Is it research about individuals, both women and men, in terms of their status in society and school and music in relationship to their gender? Is it research concerning women and girls only? What is the relationship of feminist theory to feminist research? The discussion seemed to demonstrate that these issues remain salient and must continue to be addressed.

2.2  TORONTO 2000: AN IDIOSYNCRATIC AND HIGHLY PROVISIONAL ACCOUNT

by Roberta Lamb (Queen’s University)

The mega-meeting in Toronto, 1-5 November 2000, overwhelmed me. There were too many people and too many organisations and too many sessions all at the same time. Sessions began at 8 a.m. and continued through 11 p.m. Each night I planned the sessions I would attend the following day, and each day my schedule would change, often based on who I ran into because I then wanted to spend more time with them catching up since the last conference. I was frustrated by each organisation’s having a different schedule so that it was difficult to plan session-hopping in order to try to get to favourites. Still, there were many good things about this mega-meet.

The first thing I noticed was that the conference provided a great opportunity to sample different organisations’ sessions and get a better sense of the different music organisations and societies. For example, I have never been a member of ATMI (Association for Technology in Music Instruction) and have never attended one of their conferences. I was favourably impressed by the several ATMI sessions I attended. Here is a music education organisation that crosses disciplinary boundaries through the common problem of using technology to best advantage in music instruction. Music education, music performance, music theory, music composition and music history, as well as educational psychology and technology were all represented in these sessions. The sessions dealt with education at all levels. GRIME member Kimberly C. Walls presented an electronic poster session on “School Musicians’ Attitudes toward Hypermedia- Enhanced Rehearsals.” One of the most interesting pedagogical uses demonstrated was a “West Side Story” CD-ROM (Kate Covington and Charles Lord, University of Kentucky) that provided many opportunities for analysing the musical through dance, drama, music, and sociology. Distance learning was another topic that demonstrated unique possibilities of new technologies.

ATMI did not corner the technology issue. IASPM (International Association for the Study of Popular Music) sponsored a session called “When Technology and Music Intersect” that included four papers addressing pedagogy and technology. Of these, “The Music Teacher, the DJ, and the Turntable” (Kai Fikentscher, Columbia University), engaged in an interesting analysis of informal music education through popular music, and “Technology and Epistemology” (Steve Jones, University of Illinois at Chicago) asked important questions about teaching popular music. At the exact same time another IAPSM session called “Pedagogies and Methodologies” featured an excellent analysis of gender and race in the university classroom, “The 2:00 Vibe: Mixing Cultures, Amplifying Gender, and Producing an Alternative Pedagogy for Popular Music,” presented by Kyra D. Gaunt (University of Virginia). I hope this paper is published, as it is a most salient understanding of race, class and gender in university classroom struggles.

I was impressed with the number of pedagogical or educationally-focused sessions throughout the conference. Every society, with the exception of the Canadian University Music Society listed at least one such session, and most listed several, in the agenda. Clearly, interest in education is increasing in “content” areas of performance, theory, composition, musicology and ethnomusicology. I also noticed that in most cases gender and education, or race and education, etc. were separate from those sessions that explicitly examined gender, race, sexuality. CMS (College Music Society) sponsored a session to ask what direction the next CMS Report on the Status of Women should take. GRIME member Patricia O’Toole represented us very well on this panel. It was immediately obvious that different experiences in the university, in feminist studies, and different goals exist. There is a suggestion for the CMS and IAWM to work together on this project. This may be a good idea; however, a lot more planning needs to be undertaken before the project achieves the focus necessary to be successful. CMS featured sessions on “Teacher Training and Curriculum” as well as two poster sessions that were primarily pedagogical.

Some of the most interesting pedagogical sessions, to me, were those sponsored by the Society for Ethnomusicology (SEM) and the Canadian Society for Traditional Music (CSTM). GRIME member Sherry Johnson gave an excellent presentation about the youth step-dancing group, Canadian Heritage, that highlighted the complexities of authenticity in “Examining ‘heritage’ in Canadian Heritage.” Judith Cohen (York University), Sonia James-Wilson (University of Toronto), and GRIME member Kari Veblen shared curriculum and the frustrations of teaching in Ontario in “Oral Tradition and the Medieval Music Curriculum in Ontario: Ideas, Experiences and Possibilities.” Both of these sessions were sponsored by the CSTM.

GRIME members Bryan Burton and Kari Veblen were busy, busy, busy with the SEM sessions. Kari is the past-chair and Bryan the current chair of the SEM Education Committee. I urge GRIME members to become involved in this group. It is a lively committee. I’m sure Bryan will be keeping us informed of future SEM Education Committee activities. The SEM Education Committee sponsored the session “Keeping it Real: Ethnomusicology In, As, and For Multicultural Music Education,” its committee meeting, and a forum called “Musics of the World: Outreach.” This last session was remarkable for its attempt to bring together school music educators, children, university music educators and ‘bona fide’ ethnomuicologists. Teachers who have done extensive work in a particular culture, whether their own or one intensively studied, presented a bit of the fieldwork and then demonstrated classroom applications. The SEM Education Committee sessions provided a means of interrogating differences as part of pedagogy and ethnomusicology. There were three other SEM sessions important to music educators. Kari Veblen organised “Music for Children,” a session that included Kenyan call and response, koto instructional music, and ice cream truck music. Timothy Rice’s three-dimensional model of postmodern musical experience was the foundation for papers by Rice (UCLA), Salwa El-Shawan Costelo-Branco (University of Nova de Lisboa), Andrew Killick (Florida State University), Ellen Koskoff (Eastman School of Music), and David Elliott (University of Toronto). This session provoked extensive discussion. “Musicking in the Culture and Experience of Children” featured papers by Ramona Holmes (Seattle Pacific University), Patricia Shehan Campbell (University of Washington), Charles Keil (State University of New York–Buffalo), and Marie McCarthy (University of Maryland, College Park). GRIME member Marie McCarthy’s “Documenting Children’s Musical Culture” provided us with a history, pointing out the role of women in this project. This is another paper that I hope will be published in the future.

I’ve left out many things–the Status of Women Committee and GLSG Study Group meetings, for example–and many GRIME people who were at the conference but I never saw or could not make it to their session because it was scheduled at the same time as one of these sessions. I could go on for ages, but there is a newsletter deadline!

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3.  GEMS REPORT

GEMS (Gender, Education, Music, Society) by Eleanor Stubley (McGill University)

GRIME-International is in the process of launching a new on-line electronic journal. Entitled GEMS, this theoretical journal is designed to explored the myriad intersections between gender, education, music, and society, with emphasis on the way in which music teaching and learning can be used to re-dress and eliminate inequalities brought about through ideologies of domination by creating an open-ness to musical experience that promotes access to all. Submissions representing a wide variety of methodologies and discipline orientations will be sought (i.e., historical, ethnographic, philosophical, sociological, biographical, etc.), with authors encouraged to make use of the variety of creative options presented by the electronic medium. The journal will include feature articles, shorter articles exploring pedagogical applications, reviews, and “reader” dialogue. The latter will enable readers to share ideas and responses to the various articles in the journal. Co-editors of the Journal will be Elizabeth Gould and Eleanor Stubley. We are in the process of putting together an Editorial Board having an international, interdisciplinary orientation. To date, it includes Roberta Lamb (Queen’s University), Lucy Green (University of London, England), Wayne Bowman (Brandon University), Andra McCartney (Communications (and composer), Concordia University), and Susie O’Neill (Dept. of Psychology, Keele University, England), with others to follow. Stay tuned for further details and a call for submissions. For further information, contact Eleanor Stubley at stubley@music.mcgill.ca.

GRIME-International On-Line Journal

Title: G.E.M.S. – Gender, Education, Music, and Society: Official On-line Scholarly Journal of G.R.I.M.E.-International

Title Page: Gems turning in light with plethora of colours fanning out; with copyright approved extract from Alexina Louie’s, The Eternal Earth (a pice of music where she mixes styles from her own heritage and explore the identity of the earth, using in one passage, crystals and water-filled wine glasses.

Editor: Co-editorship of Elizabeth Gould and Eleanor Stubley; initial co-editor positions to be 5- and 4-year terms (for development purposes); subsequent terms to be 3 years; replacements to be voted by membership, and staggered such that both positions are not replaced in the same year to enhance continuity; co-editorship provides for depth of experience and perspective consistent with mandate of the Journal.

Format: Bi-annual.

Editorial Board: Board of 10 member representing different inter-disciplinary orientations and different teaching interests; 2 members from England or Europe; 2-4 from Canada; 2-4 from the USA; 2 from other continents, 1 ethnomusicology member, and 2 sociologist and/or education members from outside GRIME List. The latter is important to increase profile and to maintain contact with tributary disciplines and ensure uniformity of standards. Teaching interests should be interpreted broadly to reflect different levels of instruction, including various types of university teaching. Initially, staggered 2, 3, and 4 year terms so that no more than 1/3 of the board would be new at any given time; over time, becoming 3 year terms.

Mission Statement: GEMS is a theoretical on-line journal designed to explore the myriad intersections between gender, education, music, and society, with a particular emphasis on the way in which music teaching and learning can be used to re-dress and eliminate inequalities brought about through ideologies of domination by creating an open-ness to musical experience that promotes access to all. (And, thus by extension, also the ways in which music teaching and learning have not been transformative in the past.) Gender will be approached, not as male or female, but as a continuum of possibilities sustained by socially and historically constructed notions of masculinity and femininity that interact in complex, often competing and contradictory, ways. (By focusing attention on the transformative power of music as a site for both self and culture/social re-generation, the journal also opens discussion to possibilities of gender and identity not yet imagined or theorized.) A wide variety of methodological (historical, ethnographic, philosophical, sociological, etc.) And inter-disciplinary orientations will be featured, with contributors encouraged to make use of the variety of creative options presented by the electronic medium.

Contents:

Part One: Feature Articles (invited and peer-reviewed competition) Part Two: Pedagogical Application Articles (shorter, observation type articles designed to highlight a theme or issue requiring further study and exploration; or illustration of specific application of issue at various levels of instruction) Part Three: Book Review (solicited; to include significant music and curriculum documents) Part Four: Space for readers to sign on and participate in dialogue on feature articles.

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4.  MEMBERS RESEARCH AND CREATIVE ACTIVITIES

4.1  POSTWAR MODERNITY AND THE WIFE’S SUBJECTIVITY: BERNSTEIN’S TROUBLE IN TAHITI

by Elizabeth L. Keathley (University of Tennessee, Knoxville)

Usually characterized as a “light” work fusing operatic and popular idioms, Leonard Bernstein’s opera in seven scenes, Trouble in Tahiti (1952), uncannily prefigures the female malaise documented in Betty Friedan’s classic, The Feminine Mystique (1963). Like Schoenberg’s 1929 Von heute auf morgen, Trouble uses a couple’s vexed marriage to satirize contemporaneous manners, gender relations, and patterns of production and consumption. But unlike the lieto fineof Von heute auf morgen, Bernstein’s opera ends with the wife’s unresolved musings on “bought-and-paid-for magic,” a clear indictment of the hollowness of America’s post-World War II suburban affluence.

Trouble in Tahiti is informed by a radical political sensibility, similar to that of Marc Blitzstein– to whom Bernstein dedicated the opera. However, Bernstein’s attention to the role of Dinah, the wife, suggests a heightened awareness of the particular ways that the new domesticity of the 1950s bore on married women. While women’s new role as dependent, consuming psychiatric patients–so thoroughly depicted in 1950s American cinema–is critiqued in the opera, Dinah’s inner life is given center stage in a manner denied to her husband, Sam. In herlonging for intimacy and fulfillment, Dinah reveals both her disenchantment with her suburban life and symptoms of what Friedan called “the problem that has no name.”

The present study considers Trouble in Tahiti in relation to a range of contemporaneous texts to argue for the opera’s significance as cultural criticism that places post-World War II gender relations at its center.

4.2  SCHOOL MUSICIANS’ ATTITUDES TOWARD HYPERMEDIA-ENHANCED REHEARSALS: A PILOT STUDY

by Kimberly C. Walls (Auburn University)

Preservice music teachers need skills in addressing al aspects of music and incorporating technology into rehearsals in ways that increase musical understanding and appreciation. Thirteen undergraduates who were enrolled in a music education practicum developed hypermedia materials that were presented during school music rehearsals. The feasibility of presenting hypermedia during rehearsals and the changes in ensemble members’ attitudes toward compositions presented in this manner and toward rehearsals which incorporated hypermedia were examined. Every undergraduate successfully completed a hypermedia product addressing aspects of the comprehensive musicianship approach to a composition. Five of them presented their projects to their school focus ensemble. Survey responses from seventeen members of a middle school chorus and twenty-four members of a high school band showed increases in mean levels of interest in rehearsal activities (t = 2.76 and t = 2.75, respectively, p < .01). The middle school choir members also reported a significant increase in levels of interest in a composition (t = n1.87, p < .05). Mean levels of liking compositions or liking rehearsals did not significantly improve. Future studies should allow more time for hypermedia and lesson plan development prior to beginning practicum teaching and also investigate whether student interest in hypermedia enhanced rehearsal remains heightened after the novelty phase. University students also need adequate access to portable multi-media equipment.

4.3  MUSIC EDUCATION

by J. Terry Gates (SUNY at Buffalo)

This presentation tests the assumption that content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge have equivalent effects. That is, the stereotype that if one knows a subject one can teach it effectively will be critiqued. Using college teaching in music courses as cases, and standard approaches to teaching them as examples, I will show how a simple teaching model can be used to help doctoral students plan, prepare, instruct, assess and reflect on their teaching. They can improve instruction by making some better assumptions about the outcomes they expect to produce in students, rather than by tinkering with how they frame the content.

Intuitive teaching can (and does) form the basis for a more analytical, professional approach to college instruction, and I will show how this model can be applied in shaping the teaching skill of doctoral students. I will also suggest an “apprenticeship” program, including a screening process and student evaluations, to use assistantships better in educating higher-education music teachers.

4.4  FIRST PEOPLES’ MUSIC AND DANCE IN CANADA: A RESOURCE GUIDE ON CD-ROM

by Elaine Keillor (Carleton University)

For over a thousand years Europeans have had contact with the First Peoples of the area now known as Canada. Subsequently many valuable observations of both music and dance have been written, and photographed. Within the past 110 years the actual sounds have been recorded. Because much of this material is scattered in many institutions and publications, this Resource Guide has been organized to reproduce the relevant written material or, for more recent and readily available resources, to provide an assessment of said resource as a written, audio, or film representation. Within the written documentation portion, the materials have been organized into nine geographical regions. Wherever possible, a specific culture designation is given for said item, whether written, recorded, or filmed. Thus, on the CD-ROM which contains thousands of entries, many search possibilities exist with regard to a specific culture, the dances, and instruments used.

4.5  EXAMINING THE “HERITAGE” IN CANADIAN HERITAGE

by Sherry Johnson (York University)

Canadian Heritage, a group of eighteen step dancers and fiddlers from across Ontario, was formed in 1996 in response to an invitation to represent Canada at two international performing arts festivals. Billed as “Canada’s Answer to Riverdance,” the group has performed to sold-out audiences across southwestern Ontario. While I perform with Canadian Heritage as their piano accompanist, I take no part in the decision-making of the group, as I do not attend regular practices or meetings. It was in this dual insider/outsider role that I first became intrigued by the group’s invocation of both “Canadian” and “heritage.” In this paper I focus specifically on the concept of “heritage” as it is understood by members of the performing group, and myself, in relation to our performances and to step dancing in general.

At the root of my inquiry is the dichotomy between a fixed, essentialist concept of “heritage” and a more fluid understanding of “heritage” as symbolic construct; I conclude that this dochotomy is more relevant to how we talk about “heritage” than how we practise it. In fact, because of the emphasis on development and creativity in Ottawa Valley-style step dancing, the use of an essentialist concept of “heritage,” in practice, would first necessitate its construction by participants. Perhaps a reflection of our postmodern age, the fragmentation and juxtaposition of various references to “heritage,” in relation to our name, performances, processes of cultural selection, and understanding of what we do, are not considered contradictions by the performers in the group, but rather a “natural” state for step dancing at the turn of the century.

4.6  ORAL TRADITION AND THE MEDIEVAL MUSIC CURRICULUM IN ONTARIO: IDEAS, EXPERIENCES AND POSSIBILITIES

by Judith Cohen (York University), Kari Veblen and Sonia James-Wilson (University of Toronto)

The Ontario Ministry of Education mandated a Grade Four curriculum including a medieval unit, which has now been taught for several years, despite the fact that there are no teacher training sessions or educational materials to support it. Concerned, we initiated a study collaborating with four teachers to generate a medieval music component for the medieval unit. Our project is based in a culturally-diverse inner-city Toronto school. The process of working with children in school contexts raises many issues. What musics should represent the medieval era’s range of cultures and time periods? What is possible and appropriate for fourth graders? How can we involve children actively without trivializing the music?

Questions of oral and written transmission arose. We were also conscious of the impossibility of audio documentation, lack of notation for non-Christian cultures and incompleteness of notation or performance contexts. Our lessons drew upon the continuance of instruments and oral traditions in folkways, and time-honored techniques such as repetition to facilitate aural learning and participation. Survival of certain medieval songs in French Canada served to illustrate differences between survival of words and actual melodies.

This presentation examines theoretical and practical aspects of working with this interplay between manuscript and oral tradition, to be demonstrated with live and recorded musical examples. Political realities have motivated this project and shape our analysis as we draw implications for a synthesis of ethnomusicological, musicological and performance experiences in music education.

4.7  “A PROCESS OF ADVOCACY”: RACIAL REPRESENTATIONS ON MUCHMUSIC (CANADA) AND MTV (U.S.)

by Karen Pegley (York University)

It is indisputable that since MTV’s premiere as a venue for (primarily) white rock acts, the station–albeit sometimes reluctantly–has expanded its range of musical genres and racial representations. MuchMusic, Canada’s foremost music television station, goes even further to demonstrate multicultural diversity, showcasing a variety of languages, a wide range of musical genres, and several “world music” video shows. When each station is examined vis-a-vis video programming and rotation schedules, however, they exhibit unique, carefully controlled, nationally-inflected relationships between dominant and marginalized musical traditions. In this paper I explore how multiculturalism appears to be “celebrated” on MuchMusic and MTV while representations are negotiated such that ethnocentric norms and values, which pervade North American cultural media, are never contested.

4.8  DOCUMENTING CHILDREN’S MUSICAL CULTURE: PAST ACHIEVEMENTS, FUTURE DIRECTIONS

by Marie McCarthy (University of Maryland, College Park)

The study of children’s musical culture is central to understanding music as a dynamic form of cultural expression. This paper offers a historical perspective on the development and status of field research on “music by and for children.” It is conceived around two basic ideas: field research on children’s music from the late nineteenth century until recently was underdeveloped and subject to cultural hegemony, and a twenty-first century research agenda will need imaginative, interdisciplinary study of children’s music, honoring their voices and bringing to the study a breadth of conceptual frameworks and methodologies to enrich and deepen understanding of the role of music in the culture and experience of children.

The paper has a dual purpose. First, it investigates the approaches and methods used in a variety of disciplines to document children’s musical culture, from beginnings in folklore and anthropology to later developments in ethnomusicology, education, and sociology. Second, it presents patterns that emerged from such studies and from collections of children’s music; for example, functions of music specific to children’s music making, classification of song and other repertoire, musical creativity, and identity construction. In the process, insights are also gained on adult/researcher interest in the perception of music in childhood and how they changed over time. Based on these insights and developmental patterns, I identify issues specific to documenting children’s musical culture, and offer suggestions for future research endeavors in this interdisciplinary field.

4.9  “BY A CANADIAN LADY”: PIANO MUSIC, 1841-1997

by Elaine Keillor, piano (Carleton University)

This lecture-recital surveys music written for the piano by Canadian women composers over a period of 150 years. The earliest available published composition is the Canada Union Waltz(“By a Canadian Lady,” 1841) whose title refers to the union of Upper and Lower Canada as recommended in Lord Durham’s report of 1840. Short pieces by Frances J. Hatton (came to Canada in 1869) and Susie Frances Harrison (1859-1935) show the limitations of what publishers would print. Gena Branscombe (1881-1977) wrote chamber and orchestral works, but it was mainly her songs, choral settings, and piano pieces that were published. Barbara Pentland (1912-2000) and Rhene Jaque (b. 1918) have been influential teachers. Alexina Louie (b. 1949) has been widely recognized for her evocative eastern-influenced orchestral works. Deidre Piper (b. 1943) explores a new concept of the sonata.

4.10  A LIGHT TOUCH, PLEASE: MASTERING NATIVE AMERICAN IMPROVISATION AND ORNAMENTATION IN THE MULTICULTURAL CLASSROOM

by J. Bryan Burton (West Chester University)

Students learning to perform Native American musics may become somewhat bewildered, when first encountering traditional ornamentation and improvisation techniques, by the seeming complexity of often florid, yet quiet and subtle improvisations of flutists such as R. Carlos Nakai and Robert Tree Cody. Further exploration of the genre reveals that the use and nature of the improvisations are subtly influenced by understandings of Native American history, religion, and social mores passed from master to learner as an integral component of an aural/oral transmission process. This unique process, teaching as it does both musical competencies and cultural understandings, holds the key to successful transfer of the musical and cultural knowledge that guides the learner to interpret the “intangibles” that often dictate styles of ornamentation and improvisation.

Throughout my experiences as a field researcher among Native Americans and a multicultural music educator in settings ranging from elementary music classes to university music education and world music courses, I have used an adaptation of this traditional teaching method to provide an effective means for students to master the subtleties of Native American-style ornamentation and improvisation. This session illustrates, through live performance demonstrations, recorded examples, and audience participation, methods I have developed to teach Native American-style ornamentation and improvisation in multicultural music classes at all levels. These methods will enable the multicultural music educator to instruct in ways retaining the contextual, cultural, and musical integrity of the culture, honor an ancient teaching tradition, and develop appropriate musical competencies and cultural understandings among the students.

4.11  INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVES ON FILM MUSIC

organized and co-chaired by Charlene Morton and Annabel J. Cohen (University of Prince Edward Island)

Film music is one of the few musical genres developed almost exclusively during the twentieth century. Often previously subordinated to the purer forms of music alone, now, coincident with the new “age of multimedia” and the onset of the twenty-first century, film music is clearly stimulating a burgeoning growth of scholarship in a variety of disciplines. Because of the novelty of the enterprise, scholars have often fought for viability of this research pursuit within their particular disciplines. This session brought together five perspectives on film music research. It offered an SMPC audience the opportunity to hear about the aesthetic, cognitive, technological, feminist film-theoretic, and ethnomusicological aspects of the relationship between dynamic visual and musical images.

American Folklore Society

4.12  CULTURAL POSITIONALITIES OF WOMEN COLLEGE BAND DIRECTORS: INTERSECTING MUSIC, PERFORMANCE, AND COLLEGE BANDS

by Elizabeth Gould

The homoscioal reproduction of college band directors limits the proportion of women in the profession to less than 10%. More than professional gate keeping, homosocial reproduction constitutes a cultural imperative enacted at the intersections of the cultures of music, performance, and college bands. These intersections are characterized by femininity/homosexuality related to music and performance in opposition to the musculinity/heterosexuality of bands, the perceived inherent inferiority of band music, and the outsider status of band directors. The positionalities of women college band directors are untenable at these intersections, because accepting them into the profession would confirm that music and performance are feminine/homosexual, band music is insignificant, and college band directors are not integral to a misogynist, homophobic profession.

Philosophy of Music Education International Symposium IV

Respondent to, “Music Listening and Performance as Embodied Dialogism” by Deanne Bogdan. by Sandra Wieland Howe

Maryland Symposium:

4.13  AMERICAN WOMEN MUSIC EDUCATORS, 1900-1950

by Sondra Wieland Howe

This lecture/slide show gave an overview of the contributions of American women music educators in the first half of the twentieth century. Women participated in the Music Division of NEA, Music Supervisors National Conference, and Music Educators National Conference as officers, speakers, and authors. Women were encouraged in piano and vocal performance in the private sphere. Since they were denied membership in bands and symphony orchestras, they formed women’s performance groups.

Women received their music education in teacher-training schools of urban school systems, summer institutes, normal schools, and through private instruction. White and African-American women established conservatories. Active in publication, they produced school textbooks, piano methods, and articles in professional journals. Frances Clark, Mabelle Glenn, and Vanett Lawler were involved in international organizations. Further research on female music educators will create a revised view of the history of music education.

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4.  Abstracts of Dissertations

4.14  FLOWERS IN THE MUSICAL CANON: A TRANSFORMED, GENDER INCLUSIVE, CULTURALLY PLURALISTIC MODEL CORE CURRICULUM IN COLLEGE MUSIC

by Anita Hanawalt

A trying teaching experience demonstrated the need for transformation in the college music curriculum: the existing European male centered core curriculum neither reflected student tastes, interests and identities nor encouraged further musical exploration across cultures. A demographic study of selected California Community Colleges and State Universities characterized the audience for college music studies, in support of creating a more gender inclusive, culturally pluralistic core curriculum in music.

Demographic statistics revealed that within the total student population of the California Community Colleges and of the California State Universities, the ethnic make-up is African American (7.3; 7.3%), Asian American (12.0; 5.6%), Latino/a (24.3; 22.8%), European American (42.6; 47.6%), Native American (1.0; 1.2%), Filipino/a (3.2; 5.0%), and Pacific Islander (0.6; 0.5%). For each ethnic group represented in the available data, I selected one Community College and one State University at which that ethnic group was represented by the highest percentage of the student body as compared to the rest of the California system. Since an examination of the core curriculum in music for each selected school showed that core curricula did not reflect majority student populations at any of these schools, I devised a questionnaire to be sent out to music faculty at these schools, to gauge faculty reaction to this lack of correlation.

After analyzing faculty responses and extensive readings, I created a model core curriculum in music based not only on student demographics, but on the need to teach an inclusive set of courses that don’t conflate “music” with just the Western “classical” tradition.

The model is presented as seven connecting circles, with a transformed introductory music class, Music Cultures, at the center. The six surrounding circles of classes include Historiography(s), Theory(s), Composition/Improvisation, Music Business, Performance, and Detailed Study of a Specific Music Culture. Each component of the model core curriculum is explained in detail, including analysis, possible pedagogical applications, and advice to colleagues for implementation, including possibilities for teaching online. Concluding remarks encourage music faculty to continue the challenging work of curriculum transformation.

Abstracts of Master’s Theses

4.15  SINGING A WOMAN’S LIFE: HOW SINGING LESSONS TRANSFORMED THE LIVES OF NINE WOMEN

by Ann Patteson

The purpose of this research was to examine how taking singing lessons led to the transformation of the self-concepts and lives of eight of my women singing students. Early into the project, it became clear that the research would also involve an exploration of the metaphors of “voice” and “silence” as they apply to women’s lives in our culture.

I adopted a feminist perspective for this study, informed by writing on female development. I eventually included myself as a study participant, thereby expanding the number of participants to nine, because my own life had been transformed through my interactions with the other women in this study.

A qualitative methodology was adopted for this study. Data was collected through two interviews with each of the study participants. I included an autobiographical account of some of my experiences in the world of Western art music and an analysis of those experiences as data in the thesis.

The research revealed how inequities between males and females are built into our institutions of family, church, and school. Pressures to conform to societal notions of appropriate behaviour and appearances for girls and women create a further sense of inadequacy and alienation from self and others. Some of the women in this study revealed the devastating effects of sexual abuse on self-esteem. Every one of the study participants laboured under the legacy of exclusionary practices in music education and performance that caused her to consider herself to be, at best, an “inadequate” singer. An analysis of my life in music revealed how the oppressive forces that pervaded the lives of my other study participants also permeate musical education and performance in our culture. Because of our various experiences of oppression, the voices, physical and metaphorical, of all of the women in the study had, in many respects, been silenced.

For the eight women singing students who participated in this study, the singing lessons helped them overcome the effects of silencing to find their voices. The development of singing technique allowed them to reconnect with bodily sensation; they thus recovered a sense of ownership over their own bodies, felt more powerful, stayed focused in the moment, and released some of the pain that they had carried for years. These gains were enhanced by the integration of thoughts and feelings with the words of songs or vocalizations that expressed the experiences of the women. A number of factors combined to create a safe learning environment: control by the women of the learning agenda and process, a lack of criticism from the teacher, playfulness and beauty in the learning environment, and my sharing, as their teacher, of my own life experiences.

What I learned from my study participants caused me to revisit my own musical past in an attempt to understand how gender biases had caused me to doubt myself and my musicianship: I was able to banish many feelings of inadequacy and to return to public performance after a hiatus of many years with renewed enthusiasm and joy.

In the final chapter of this thesis I discuss the implications of my study findings for the creation of a pedagogy of singing that addresses the needs and desires of women in this culture.

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5.  PUBLICATIONS & RECORDINGS

LEADERSHIP IN MENC: THE FEMALE TRADITION. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 141, (summer 1999): 59-65. by Sondra Wieland Howe

In the United States, women have been active in the the Music Educators National Conference from its founding. This paper explores the lives of the female presidents of MENC during the past ninety years. Who were these female presidents? What was their educational background and teaching experience? What did they accomplish during their terms of office?

Frances Elliott Clark presided over a meeting of music supervisors in Iowa in 1907. This group became the Music Supervisors National Conference (MSNC) in 1910 and the Music Educators National Conference (MENC) in 1934. The organization held annual conferences from 1909- 1926, and then began biennial conferences. Activities of the MSNC/MENC have been described in various periodicals.

DORA PEJACEVIC. (Entry in Women Composers Anthology).

Dora Pejacevic (1885-1923), a major Croatian composer of the early 20th century, studied composition in Zagreb, Dresden, and Munich. She composed piano and vocal works, chamber and orchestral works. This entry in the anthology Women Composers: Music Through the Agesincludes biographical information on Pejacevic, bibliography, list of works, and an edition of two piano selections, “Impromptu” and “Rose.”

CANADIANS AT THE KEYBOARD: HISTORICAL ANTHOLOGY OF CANADIAN MUSIC. (200). Carleton Sound, cscd-1008. Compact disk, liner notes. Elaine Keillor, piano and organ (Carleton University)

This recording of all of the works specified for piano that are included in the Historical Anthology of Canadian Music covers the period of 1791 to 1939. Because some works specified a range of possible keyboards, a few other pieces that were played on piano, or various types of organs have been included as well. This recording includes 31 selections, including The Canadian Waltz, attributed to Josephte Desbarats Sheppard.

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6.  PENDING PUBLICATIONS

WOMEN AND MUSIC IN AMERICA SINCE 1900: AN ENCYCLOPEDIA, edited by Kristine H. Burns, published by The Oryx Press, spring 2001.

HANDBOOK OF RESEARCH ON MUSIC TEACHING AND LEARNING, edited by Richard Colwell and others, published by Oxford University Press, September 2001.

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7.  NEWS & CONFERENCES

Wayne Bowman and David Elliott need your input by 1 January 2001 for a MayDay Group Position Paper on the music participation ideal, No. 1. The kinds of input they need are:

your answers to the three questions (a-c below) a bibliography of your writing on the issue, annotated on the points of No. 1 brief commentaries on the issue inherent in rationalizing music participation For more information, see the MayDay Group web page at http://www.nyu.edu/education/music/mayday/maydaygroup/index.htm

The MayDay Group is an international community of music education theorists with a two-fold purpose: (a) to apply critical theory and critical thinking to the purposes and practices of music education, and (b) to affirm the central importance of musical participation in human life and, thus, the value of music in the general education of all people. Membership in the MayDay Group is open to anyone interested in contributing to discourse that challenges unexamined assumptions about music and music-making, and who wishes as well to help address the MayDay Group’s guiding ideals for music education practice. Membership is free of charge. For more information, read the web site or contact Terry Gates at JTGates@aol.com.

The Southeastern Music Education symposium promotes research, scholarship, and dialogue in the study and practice of music teaching and learning at all levels of the educational experience. Individuals are invited to submit research papers dealing with any facet of music education; papers may be based on original research or may present a synthesis of research findings on a specific topic or area. The Symposium provides a forum for papers representing the broadest range of topics and research approaches. Postmark deadline is December 20, 2000 for consideration for the Symposium to be held May 18-19, 2001. For more information, contact Mary A. Leglar at mleglar@arches.uga.edu.

The inaugural issue of <www.humnet.ucla.edu/echo> ECHO: a music-centered journal is now online. The desire to understand how music works is not exclusive to musicologists; indeed, music is an integral part of cultural experience for all people. Music functions as a sonic text of critical importance, and defines people according to their traditions, genders, classes, sexualities, ages, and individual characteristics. Moreover, it acts as an important mode of communication for ideas and beliefs, and can mean different things to different people. Created and edited by the graduate students of the Department of Musicology at the University of California, Los Angeles, ECHO provides a forum for substantive cross-cultural and interdisciplinary communication about music. We use the media technology of the World Wide Web to enable innovative perspectives on music and culture. By including sound and film clips in our articles, we can directly address the nuances of performance and interpretation and avoid relying solely on notation and technical language. ECHO is well positioned to witness and participate in a diverse and vibrant society in which many voices and musics are heard. Submissions welcome.

The International Journal of Education and Arts is a new peer-reviewed online scholarly journal to be launched in 2000. The journal will serve as a forum within the fields of aesthetics and arts education. These fields include, among others, art theory, music education, visual arts education, drama education, dance education, education in literature and narrative. Holistic, integrated studies that cross or transcend these fields are also welcomed. A Book Review section contains thoughtful essays on current, recent and classic works in arts education. For more information, see the journal web page at http://ijea.asu.edu.

In an effort to promote and support more involvement by women in jazz, the International Association of Jazz Educators’ Sisters in Jazz program is sponsoring its 4th Annual Sisters in Jazz Collegiate Competition. The winners will perform at the upcoming IAJE Annual Conference to be held at the New York Hilton & Sheraton Hotels 10 through 13 January 2001. For more information, please contact: IAJE, PO Box 724, Manhattan, KS 66505-0724; telephone: 785- 776-8744; fax: 785-776-6190; e-mail: infor@iaje.org;http://www.iaje.org.

The Inter-American Conference on Black Music Research, Center for Black Music Research, and the 27th Annual Conference of The Society for American Music have announced Trinidad & Tubago 2201 to be held 23 through 27 May 2001 in Port of Spain, Trinidad. For more information, please contact: Columbia College Chicago, Center for Black Music Research, 600 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60605-1996; telephone: 312-344-7559; e-mail: cbmr@cbmr.colum.edu.

Call for Papers: Hollywood Musicals & Music in Hollywood. The American Music Research Center at the College of Music, University of Colorado at Boulder invites the submission of abstracts and panel proposals for the third triennial Susan Porter Memorial Symposium, a four- day conference to be held in Boulder 2 through 5 August 2001. Proposals due 8 January 2001. For further details including submission requirements and contact information, please see http://www.libraries.colorado.edu/amrc/.

Symposium on Musical Understanding; A CMEA/BCMEA Venture. Developing understanding in students has been a long-standing, if elusive, goal of education. What is musical understanding? How could/do music educators teach for musical understanding? The Harvard University project, Teaching for Understanding (TfU), has unfortunately largely neglected music in its publications. This symposium will address musical understanding and its role in music classes from both theoretical and practical perspectives. Presentations will address two broad categories: (1) What is musical understanding? What are the issues surrounding musical understanding? (2) How can musical understanding be nurtured in the music classroom? How do we know when it has been achieved? Victoria Conference Centre, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, February 22-23, 2001. For further information, contact Dr. Betty Hanley, Music Education, Box 3010, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8N 2W0 (250) 721-7835, fax 250-721-7767, e-mail bhanley@uvic.ca.

The 2nd International Conference for Research in Music Education will be held April 3-7, 2001 at the School of Education, University of Exeter. The aim of the conference is to gather together researchers, teachers, and practitioners to share and discuss their research which is concerned with all aspects of teaching and learning in music: music for special needs, musical development, perception and understanding, creativity, motivation, pedagogy, curriculum design, community music, technologies, instrumental teaching, teacher education, gender and culture. For further information, contact Sarah Hennessy at the School of Education, University of Exeter, St. Lukes Campus, Exeter EX1 2LU, UK. Email:S.J.E.Hennessy@exeter.ac.uk.

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